Literary Notes: Education in PakistanPakistan is a palace where huge number of children of both sex are out from the school and since last 65 years discussion and steps of our governments about education are looking extraneous today, even then most of us are not aware from this situation. Dr syed jaffar ahmed is talking about this in “Taleem: masail-o-afkar” with a different prospective which can be helpful for us to understand the basic issue of our educational system. From five different sections of his book, third section is related to different manifestos of political parties of 2013 general elections.
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Dr ahmad criticize very carefully about the drawbacks and lacking in the manifestos of political parties. From most of the urdu based articles, he summed up the whole issue in his very first article.
From the very first paragraph of the article, dr ahmed points out about the traditionalism of manifestos. He says that rarely it happens that political parties look back about their manifestos once they selected for the government. He also says that it often observed that political parties do not do their homework before forming the government and about implementation of their manifestos. This is because they really depend on bureaucracy and also forced to do so. However dr ahmad still hopeful that political parties should learn from their mistakes and it can be observed from last two budgets of newly formed government at both level federal and provincial level as well.
Dr sahib is very optimistic in the articles of first section of the book, looking towards speed of the education that we had started after the independence. In other different parts of his book he discuss and highlights about different personalities and their role for the education and specially in last part appreciation about the educational and cultural activities in the city of Karachi.
Dr ahmad himself is the director and professor at Karachi university’s Pakistan study centre and he is PhD from Cambridge university. He wrote a large number of books and articles and he is honored for his depth knowledge on history, politics and constitution of Pakistan. He is human rights activist too. One of his successful struggles is to look at Pakistan’s educational problems and its simple style for readability.
The conclusion after reading is that all the governments up till now very honestly have been trying to keep the nation unaware so nobody raise their voice against their actions. However dr syed jaffar and other scholars like them are trying their best to realize their simple thinking nation about the injustices of the governments towards them. However this naïve nation is still waiting for a person who takes them towards heights of progress. At the end dr sahib and other scholars trying to convince about the accountability of the politicians for their Wright and wrong actions.
LAHORE: letter to the editorProgresa introduction by the Mexico government was made in 1998 with the objective to facilitate health utilization and enrollments in school. The underlying aim was to make betterment of human development by enhancing overall health of the target population. This programme was based on conditional cash transfer in order to increase health facilities and enrollments in school resulting in human capital converting into country’s overall performance.
Progresa’s initial purpose was to stop inter-generational poverty transmission. Second was to include improving health and nutrition in educational programmes pertaining to health and nutrition. The hypothesis of Progresa include whether the CCTs made a betterment of healthcare facilities and overall health of children and adults. The effect of children attendance and performance in school was also checked.
Sampling of Progresa community was done like 10 % of total population of 50000 communities. In treatment group there were 320 and in control group 185 were included. Experimental design was termed as randomized control design. However there was confusion about the technique of experiment whether it is quasi or randomized control.
For identification of eligible communities marginality index was used by Progresa. After eligibility test programme used a proxy means test to evaluate eligible households within these communities. Progresa gives direct cash to females. Transferring of cash was strictly based on Progresa conditions. Transferring was done about one third of average household income. It was observed that Progresa cash transfer programme has enhanced house hold consumption patterns. Cash was used specially to increase food quality and quantity on priority basis.
Every programme effect depends on how it has changed the attitude of the target population and same was observed with Progresa programme.
From above discussion it can be realized that Progresa has been success story for Mexico and a model worth replicating in Pakistan. After comprehensive effect it can be evaluated that programme is an excellent human development initiative. Policymakers should focus on Progresa’s example for human development policies in Pakistan also.
By looking towards budget allocation of the state of Pakistan, major portion is used up in debt and remaining in defence activities. Health and education requires nominal shares that are why Pakistan needs major budgetary reforms in allocations. In addition to this Pakistan should cooperate with Mexico stakeholders to take Progresa like initiative. Individual and collective budget constraints, socio-economic aspects and institutional framework in Pakistan must be considered before making a detail policy.